Futureproofing wind energy with approved cabling systems
Power generation from wind is proving to be one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources, offering many advantages. Across the world, wind energy is providing a cost-effective alternative to conventional power supply. The demand for reliable, affordable clean energy is continuing to grow and become increasingly important in the drive for decarbonisation. Rapid transformations in power generation systems enables local, faster and energy supply to more than meet the demand. As a sustainable energy source, wind produces little to no Co₂ or greenhouse gas emissions, in turn contributing to reduced pollution and slowing the effects of climate change.
According to the Global Wind Energy Council, there was over 60 GW of new wind power generation plants installed worldwide in 2019. With wind readily available for conversion to useable energy and new installs planned over the coming years – the aim is that by 2030 wind energy will offset 2.5 billion tons of carbon per year as it has already proven to be a highly dependable source of energy.
Wind cable applications:
1. Transmission from remote locations
Wind farms tend to be located in remote areas, which may appear advantageous, but this can present challenges in the logistics involved with construction and energy transmission. Alongside the plant itself, transmission lines must be built to transport generated power from the wind farm to consumers. Many wind plant owners are pre-empting expansion and futureproofing the transmission lines to be able to handle greater capacities over time.
Unlike traditional cabling infrastructures, wind energy cables often utilise aluminium conductor designs as they offer lighter weights and lower costs than copper conductors. Assessment of cabling systems is crucial to proving long distance transmission capabilities, efficiency and performance within a range of harsh outdoor environments, including their ability to continue operating in rain, high wind and varying temperature environments.
2. Energy conversion process
Energy generated from a wind turbine is transported to a transmission substation, from here in an extremely high voltage (EHV) form it is readied for onwards transmission to the grid. Energy grids often comprise of a series of power lines which link to regional or local power centres. Once the energy reaches the centres it is converted to lower voltages and from here it is fed into the local distribution grids for consumer usage.
The journey from plant to consumer involves a range of voltage capabilities and thus a need for differing cable considerations. For example, the material components used in cable design can often by dictated by electrical demands and the cable’s ability to maximise conductivity and insulation resistance. The cable construction may also influence reactance, impedance and capacitance. Therefore, higher voltage cables used from grid to demand centres may require additional protective component layers to ensure safe and efficient performance.
3. Fire threats in wind turbines
Wind turbines catch fire for the same reasons as other heavy machinery: components fail, overheating occurs or sparks ignite flammable material. Measures can be put in place to protect and reduce the likelihood of serious wind turbine fires. Opting for non-combustible insulating materials helps suppress the early stages of a potential fire. Realtime monitoring systems can be installed to continuously monitor the condition of machinery, recording data and insights, so that action can be taken and operations paused before a serious fire situation develops. With remote operations, particularly those offshore or not easily accessible, systems such as these safeguard operations.
A turbine fire can cost the sector up to $4.5 million, a GCube report from 2015 claims. Poor quality cable can play a significant role in starting and spreading a fire down towers and to surrounding areas. Reaction to fire classification testing offers a solution to assess fire performance in terms of spread, smoke, acid gas emissions and volume of flaming droplets, allowing plant owners to know how cabling systems in operation could impact the risk and severity of fire.
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